Overview of popular frameworks, including pros, cons, and features.
Author Santhamani Gaddamanugu, EPAM Middle Software Engineer, shares his expertise.
In this article
- Front-end frameworks (client side)
- Back-end frameworks (server side)
- Two-way data binding;
- Logic is separated from the display using MVC, which is favored by developers;
- Easy DOM Manipulation; and
- Reusability of components.
- Some features are complicated to customize; and
- Can have complex scenarios.
- Data binding for synchronized view and model updates;
- Directives for adding interactivity;
- Dependency injection for HTTP calls and passing data between components;
- Templates for creating UI elements;
- Support for building Progressive Web Apps with modern web capabilities; and
- A change detection mechanism that can update specific parts of the application without reloading all components using default and OnPush mechanisms.
- Allows reuse of components;
- Solves issues associated with HTML for dynamic web applications, and uses Virtual DOM for faster rendering; and
- Uses functional components and class components, which have their own features.
- Uses JSX, which can have a steep learning curve; and
- JSX, data binding, and hooks are opinionated.
- Declarative UI for readability and easy debugging;
- Virtual DOM for efficient rendering of UI;
- Component-based architecture for modular development;
- JSX markup syntax for easier maintenance of React components;
- High performance with one-way data binding and Flux controls; and
- Used for building native apps in React native.
- Small size, easily adaptable, and extendable with other libraries;
- Reactivity is created by Composition API, which doesn’t require a decorator.
- Small plug-in system;
- Language barriers, since large communities of users develop plugins and documentation in Chinese, which makes it difficult for those who don’t understand the language; and
- Too much flexibility can create risks and differing programming approaches within a single team.
- Declarative rendering and component-based architecture;
- Core library is designed to be easy to pick up and use, yet customizable and extensible;
- Composition API for Redux-like State Management without external dependencies;
- Single File Component for easy use throughout the application; and
- Built-in component for Transitions/Animations to provide effects to HTML documents.
Next.js is a React front-end framework for building UIs and static websites. It features automatic page generation based on file structure and incremental static generation for updating static pages.
- Responsive Design — flexible and responsive to all media devices;
- Enables building of static websites quickly with dynamic functionalities; and
- Next.js excels for SEO since it offers server-side rendering.
- Poor plug-in system;
- Build time is significantly more when working with several pages; and
- Routing can be a constraint.
- Static Generation for generating and caching HTML pages at build time; and
- Server-Side Rendering for generating dynamic content pages on every request.
- Powerful platform for fast and scalable web app development;
- Handles concurrent requests.
- Excessive reliance on callbacks;
- Asynchronous programming makes it difficult to maintain code;
- Developers must depend on third-party libraries to complete certain tasks; and
- Processes one request at a time.
- Event-driven and asynchronous, allows for concurrent handling of connections without blocking execution using callbacks;
- Single-threaded with event looping, making the server highly scalable;
- No data buffering, data sent in chunks; and
- Built on Chrome V8 engine for fast code execution.
Express.js is a free and open-source web application framework for Node.js, designed for building web applications and APIs. It is known for its soft dependencies, plugin system, easy routing, and absence of callback hell.
- Offers a variety of built-in middleware modules to extend its functionality, enhance request and response operations, and address different development issues; and
- Enables developers to handle both presentation and data access layers, simplifying and speeding up the development process.
- Error messages are not descriptive;
- Unbalanced API; and
- Might have security issues.
- Uses a component-based design to help developers reuse middleware and scale projects;
- V4 includes built-in middleware for AJAX requests;
- A great tool for quickly building web applications and APIs in Node.js; and
- Offers simple client routing requests.
- Lightweight — it is 20kb when minified;
- Flexible and easy to use, users can get started within minutes;
- Allows combining and matching of components that work best for your application's requirements;
- Will get along with any improvements you decide to make, you can adapt it to your project's requirements; and
- Good documentation.
- Opinionated about RESTful API;
- Writing unit tests can be difficult because you may need to write long lines of mock code; and
- Creates empty and redundant div elements for its view.
- Open-source project with over a hundred extensions available;
- Meant to be used with jQuery and Underscore.js as back-end technologies;
- Separates logic from UI for a maintainable codebase, utilizing Models and Views; and
- Helps manage a set of related models through Collections.
Which framework is best for web development
Most popular framework according to JAMStack survey: