3 min read

The art of data storytelling: a guide to effective communication

Have you heard about data storytelling? This article highlights what it is and provides 9 tips on how to use it to present data in a clear and compelling way.

The author of this article is EPAM Lead Software Engineer Diego Messala.

Read other articles by this author:


In today's data-driven world, being able to communicate insights effectively is crucial. Data storytelling is the practice of combining data, visuals, and narratives to convey compelling stories that engage and inform your audience. In this article, I explore data storytelling best practices and provide practical tips to help you craft engaging narratives that bring data to life.

How to communicate effectively by applying data storytelling techniques

Know your audience

Understanding your audience is the foundation of effective data storytelling. Consider their background, level of data literacy, and specific interests. This will help you tailor your message and choose the most appropriate visuals and storytelling techniques.

Define your objective

Before diving into data analysis, clarify the purpose of your story. Are you hoping to inform, persuade, or inspire action? Defining your objective will guide your narrative and ensure that your data supports your message.

Start with a compelling hook

Just like any great story, data storytelling requires a strong hook to grab the attention of your audience. Begin with an intriguing fact, an impactful question, or a surprising insight that sets the stage for the narrative to follow. This will pique curiosity and draw your audience into the story.

Craft a clear structure

Organize your data story in a logical and coherent manner. Use a clear structure that includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. In the introduction, provide context and set expectations. In the body of the piece, present your data, insights, and supporting evidence. Finally, wrap up your story with a concise conclusion that reinforces your main message.

Choose the right visuals

Visuals are powerful tools in data storytelling. Select visuals that complement your narrative and enhance the understanding of your data. Use charts, graphs, infographics, or interactive visuals to present your insights in a visually appealing and easily digestible manner. Be cautious about overwhelming your audience with too many visuals; simplicity and clarity are key.

Example: Imagine you are presenting sales data to a group of stakeholders. Instead of bombarding them with rows of numbers, create a line chart that shows the sales trends over time. This visual representation will make it easier for them to grasp the key takeaways at a glance.

Incorporate narratives

Data alone may not resonate with your audience. Integrate narratives into your storytelling to create an emotional connection and make your data more relatable. Personal anecdotes, real-life examples, or customer stories can help bring your data to life and make it more memorable.

Example: Suppose you are analyzing customer satisfaction survey data. Instead of solely presenting the percentages, include a short story that illustrates how a positive customer experience impacted someone's life. This narrative will engage your audience and emphasize the significance of the data.

Use contextualization and comparison

For deeper understanding, add context to your data by comparing it to relevant benchmarks, historical trends, or industry standards. Contextualization enables your audience to grasp the significance of the insights and evaluate their implications more effectively.

Example: When presenting website analytics, compare the current website performance metrics with the previous month or year to highlight progress or identify areas for improvement. This contextual information helps your audience gauge the effectiveness of their strategies.

Keep it simple and focused

Simplicity is vital in data storytelling. Avoid overwhelming your audience with excessive data points or complex jargon. Instead, distill your findings into clear and concise messages. Focus on the key insights that align with your objective and leave out any extraneous information that may confuse or distract your audience.

Complex visuals might be tempting to use since they look new, but the reality is that using them will not lead into the desired outcome: delivering a clear message to your audience.

Practice storytelling ethics

Maintain the integrity of your data story by practicing storytelling ethics. Ensure that your data is accurate, reliable, and properly sourced. Be transparent about any limitations or biases in the data and present multiple perspectives when appropriate. Honesty and transparency build trust and credibility with your audience.


Data storytelling is a powerful communication tool that allows you to transform complex data into engaging narratives. By understanding your audience, defining your objectives, and incorporating effective storytelling techniques, you can captivate your audience and drive meaningful action. Remember, the art of data storytelling lies in weaving together data, visuals, and narratives to create impactful stories that resonate with your audience.

If you want to learn more about data storytelling, I recommend you the following books: