1. New front-end frameworks
2. Performance and rendering
Server-side rendering (SSR) has been competing with static site generation (SSG) for quite a while to improve performance and SEO. Over the past few years, rendering patterns have been relatively straightforward. However, Partial Hydration, Progressive Hydration, Island Architectures (Astro), and reusability instead of hydration (Qwik with its Qwik City meta-framework) are also becoming valid approaches.
The main drivers of this trend are cheap serverless cloud computing and high-performance Edge computing. It requires no resources to deploy serverless functions, and it is easy for developers to build full-stack applications when both server-side and client-side code is handled by a unified framework. Frameworks focused on rendering and serving your application will be in high demand in 2023 (Next.js, Nuxt.js, Gatsby, Remix, Eleventy, SvelteKit, and Docusaurus).
3. Design frameworks and systems
As front-end development becomes more complex, design systems will become increasingly important for maintaining design consistency and improving efficiency. Customers are looking for a new visual experience by moving to simplicity and minimalism in graphics, while developers want to spend less time on UI CSS processing.
In 2023, trends in User Interface (UI) design will include:
- Minimal flat design and tools;
- Neo-brutalism on UI (contrast colors, cartoon graphics)
- Motion design — one good resource is Jitter.
4. Building tools and monorepos
Based on the above-mentioned findings, automation of building, testing, and deploying applications will be transformed as well. Webpack has a more established ecosystem and a wider range of plugins available, making it suitable for more complex projects, but new tools Vite and Turbopack (the Rust powered) are becoming extremely popular due to their faster inline-module-script approach and simpler configuration (making them easier to use), instant updates without a full rebuild, smaller bundle sizes, and improved resource loading.
From a testing perspective, Jest and Cypress are still popular. Jest's popularity is largely due to its simplicity and ease of use, as well as its integration with other tools in the React ecosystem. However, other players are becoming popular too: Vitest and Testing Library focus on providing simple and efficient testing utilities, while Playwright is a powerful end-to-end testing tool that supports multiple browsers.
6. Types safety anywhere
End-to-end type safety is a trend for 2023 with tools like Zod, TanStack Router, tRPC (or gRPC to support more langs), and Prisma, which provide type safety at the edge of an application and will be popular for full-stack TypeScript engineers.
Frameworks such as Express.js (as a good start) and Nest.js emphasize modular design and are popular among Node.js developers because they provide a range of features and tools that make it easier to build and deploy high-quality applications. There are also a few analogous tools such as Moleculer, Koa, LoopBack, Hapi, and Sails.js.
8. Cloud Native
Cloud-native development is becoming increasingly important, and this trend is here to stay for years to come. This involves building applications designed to be deployed in the cloud, which can take advantage of cloud-based services and infrastructure. Full-stack engineers should know at least one cloud of the big three (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud Platform). Engineers should focus on learning about cloud-based storage, databases, APIs (REST APIs and GraphQL), and serverless architectures to run code in the cloud without managing infrastructure. You also need to deploy, manage, and scale applications. Knowing Docker or Kubernetes enables you to succeed in the modern cloud-first world.
Technological singularity is already here, and so we’re thinking about scam and clone persona problems, where it will be hard to distinguish fakes from reality. That's why solutions for keeping personal data, and cybersecurity — especially cloud security — will trend. Node.js engineers looking to become more proficient in cloud security need to know and focus on security protocols such as SSL/TLS and SSH, encryption standards such as AES and RSA, IAM, network security, data protection, and compliance (PCI DSS, HIPAA, and SOC 2). More and more people are worried about the privacy of their data, so we must be responsible to the end users of the system and stay compliant with the standards.
10. New database approaches
New waves of databases are growing in popularity with cloud-native, serverless, and multiple-data-paradigm approaches (combining relations, graphs, and document oriented). SurrealDB, EdgeDB, and Xata are innovators in how databases should work.
11. Migration to MACH
Migration to MACH (Microservices, API first, Cloud, Headless) from legacy solutions has been a trend for the last few years, mainly for enterprise-specific solutions. MACH architecture is increasingly popular for building scalable and flexible applications that can be easily supported and updated. Moreover, today's market is highly saturated with niche SaaS solutions and platforms, which allows building truly tailored solutions. Engineers looking for a specific implementation should consider MACH. Composable commerce takes MACH architecture to the next level. It aims to solve specific business needs while making them easy to consume, integrate, and use. For front-end engineers, it will be helpful to investigate Jamstack and become more familiar with headless CMS (Contentstack, Contentful) and cloud-based headless commerce platform (Commercetools) to stay in demand on the market.
12. ML and AI driven development
AI and machine learning can be used to build intelligent and personalized user experiences and improve enterprise applications' efficiency. Companies such as DeepMind and OpenAI are leading cutting-edge research and development in AI, including reinforcement learning, generative models, and deep learning.
The most well-known language models include BERT, GPT (Generative Pretrained Transformer), and Transformer-XL. These models are designed for text classification, language translation, and text generation. They have demonstrated unprecedented results in many NLP (Natural Language Processing) benchmarks.
As for tools and apps for multimedia content generation (images, music, etc.), the most popular are DALL-e, Midjourney, Riffusion, and beatoven.ai or hybrid tools such as Play.ht and Visper.tech. AI spices up enterprise projects no matter how many lines of code are used. For customer support and SLA (Service Level Agreements) provisioning, more instruments might be considered. For example, AWS Lex and Google DialogFlow in integration with Chat GPT-3, can provide unique experiences for customer support service.
13. Variety of programming languages
The fluidity of programming languages reminds us once again how important it is to have fundamental engineering skills that will allow you to switch easily from one language to another. You may learn a second concrete language for variety and a broader view of technology.
As users become more demanding and the competition for attention grows, web application performance and user experience will be increasingly important. This requires that engineers look into new design frameworks and systems.
To keep up with the trends in the modern cloud-first world, explore cloud-based storage, databases, APIs, serverless architecture, and cloud security. And don’t be afraid of AI, it won’t replace developers in the near future.